Immunomodulatory Activity of Nivolumab in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

The data presented in this paper shows baseline and on-treatment biomarkers from a phase 1b study of the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab in renal cell carcinoma. The study examined immune changes in the microenvironment of the tumor, such as types of tumor infiltrating cells and gene expression and show that they correlate with gene expression and protein biomarkers in peripheral blood. The results suggest induction of a Th1 response locally and correlating T cell chemotactic proteins in the periphery, both of which were dose independent.

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