A Whole Blood Collection and Culture Tube for Standardized Functional Immunophenotyping Procedures

TruCulture tubes are designed to capture immune cell activity at the time and place of sample collection, thereby minimizing the bias and variability introduced by sample shipping and manipulation. These revolutionary tubes consist of an integrated whole-blood collection and leukocyte culture system that is reliable, simple to use and does not require specialized laboratory equipment. TruCulture enables researchers to reproducibly ascertain information about immune responses to stress or stimulation, including responses to novel therapeutics. The ex vivo TruCulture procedure preserves physiological cellular interactions to more accurately reflect the complexities of the human immune system, bringing added value to immune monitoring in clinical trials.

TruCulture Procedure

TruCulture tubes are pre-loaded with cell culture media and immune stimulant(s) or drug candidates. Blood is drawn directly into the TruCulture tube and incubated in a dry heat block. Supernatants are collected by simply inserting a valve separator to separate cells from the culture supernatant.

TruCulture Procedure, Collect


Draw 1 mL of blood directly into the TruCulture Tube and break off the plunger.

TruCulture Procedure, MIX

02. MIX

Gently invert tube to mix 3 to 5 times

TruCulture Procedure, Incubate


Place tube in 37ºC heat block for up to 24 or 48 hours.

TruCulture Procedure, separate


Manually insert valve to separate supernatant from the cells. Collect supernatant and cell layer for downstream analysis.

TruCulture Tube Components

TruCulture Applications

TruCulture has been utilized as a whole-blood stimulation system by researchers and drug developers in several fields to reliably measure immune response for the following applications.

  • Pharmacodynamics (including dose response)
  • Functional immune cell analysis
  • Disease characterization
  • Patient stratification
  • Genotype – to – Phenotype association studies
  • Vaccine Development
    • Antigen recall
    • Early safety studies
    • Profile the functional immune status of clinical trial participants


Our partners at, The Institut Pasteur, demonstrated the indispensable benefits of TruCulture in The Milieu Intérieur (“Environment Within”) project. Briefly, the Milieu Intérieur project is working to establish the determinants of a healthy immune response by identifying the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that contribute to the observed heterogeneity of immune responses. The challenge of the project is to establish the boundaries of a healthy immune response, and to that end, the Milieu Intérieur Project recruited 1,000 healthy individuals stratified across age (five-decades of life from age 20 – 69), and gender (1:1 gender ratio). TruCulture tubes were an integral part of the Milieu Intérieur clinical study, used as a standardized method for monitoring human response to immune stimulation.

To define the boundaries of a healthy immune response, The Milieu Intérieur project combined the use of TruCulture whole blood culture system with the use of stimuli to define the protein signatures induced by (i) medically relevant bacteria, fungi and viruses; (ii) agonists specific for defined host sensors; (iii) clinically employed cytokines; and (iv) activators of T cell immunity.

Visit The Milieu Intérieur website for more information on the project, publications, protocols, and data exploration.

View an Overview of The Milieu Intérieur Project:

Vaccine Applications Include

  • Antigen recall
  • Early safety studies
  • Profile the functional immune status of clinical trial participants

The use of TruCulture for vaccine development has been highlighted by two key examples:

  • Whole‐blood cytokine secretion assay as a high‐throughput alternative for assessing the cell‐mediated immunity profile after two doses of an adjuvanted SARS‐CoV‐2 recombinant protein vaccine candidate. (2022) De Rosa SC, et al. Clinical & Translational Immunology.
  • Safety and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine formulations in healthy adults: interim results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2, dose-ranging study. (2021) Goepfert PA, et al. Lancet Infectious Disease.

Supplementary Material including TruCulture details and figures, view here.

For the two-dose cohort, pre-vaccination and post-vaccination blood samples (D1, D22, D36) were collected into three types of TruCulture tubes:

1) Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein

2) Negative control (TruCulture media only)

3) Positive control (SEB + CD28)

Cytokines from supernatants were measured at Rules-Based Medicine. Production of Th1 associated cytokines (IFNg, IL-2 and TNFa) were elevated compared to Th2 associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) on D22 and D36 whereas neutralizing antibodies were not significantly detected until D36. The AS03 adjuvant formulation generated stronger humoral and cell mediated immunity signals relative to the AF03 adjuvant. This study illustrates that TruCulture can be a vital tool for vaccine clinical trials to profile antigen specific T cell responses.

2. Flu Antigen Recall Responses using TruCulture with OptiMAP and SIMOA Analysis(2019) Hwang SA, et al.

The recall response of flu hemagglutinin (HA) antigens was examined in healthy adults vaccinated with the 2018-2019 annual flu vaccine. The TruCulture tubes used were:

  1. Null (TruCulture media only)
  2. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)
  3. Null tubes spiked with 1.25mg each of 4 different recombinant HA proteins.

All samples were incubated for 48 hours at 37oC. Supernatant were collected and analyzed using the OptiMAP panel. No inflammatory cytokines were detected in the null tubes from either the baseline or 2 weeks post-vaccination samples. There were no differences in cytokine production in the SEB stimulated samples between the baseline and 2 weeks post-flu vaccination timelines. For flu HA stimulated samples, there was a significant increase in production of GM-CSF, IFN-­, IL-1‑, IL-6, IL-12p70, IL-23, and TNF-a at 2 weeks post-flu vaccination compared to samples collected at baseline. Additionally, flu HA stimulated samples post vaccination also demonstrated increased production of type I inteferons, as analyzed by SIMOA. These data demonstrate that TruCulture in conjunction with OptiMAP and SIMOA are useful tools for investigating antigen specific responses.

Advantages of TruCulture

  • Integrated closed sterile instant whole blood collection and culture system.
  • Standardized to ensure consistent performance across multiple users and clinical sites.
  • Reliable, easy to use, and reproducible – eliminates the need for cell manipulation.
  • Retains all blood components, granulocytes, platelets, red blood cells, soluble factors and Fc receptor expressing cells.
  • Only inexpensive heat block needed, no lab equipment nor centrifugation steps.
  • Has been successfully deployed in hundreds of clinical drug trials.

Disadvantages of Traditional PBMC

  • Separate blood collection and specialized cell culture procedures.
  • Extensive manipulation, processing, and often freezing/shipping prior to culturing.
  • Requires technical expertise with increased variability across users and clinical sites.
  • Requires CO2 incubator, biosafety cabinet, centrifuge, media, and cell culture plastics.
  • Culture procedures/conditions are difficult to standardize for clinical trial applications.
  • Open, less sterile, artificial system.
  • Poor reproducibility.

Traditional pharmacodynamic whole blood experiments are generally short in duration (2-6 hrs) as a consequence of poor culture conditions leading to premature termination of the normal physiological immune response. A longer more robust response usually provides higher sensitivity and greater relevance than short incubation times that may only lead to the release of stored pre-synthesized mediators.

View Peer-Reviewed Publications Citing TruCulture




Early and recent exposure to adversity, TLR-4 stimulated inflammation, and diurnal cortisol in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: A MAPP research network study (2023) Susan K Lutgendorf, Sharaf Zia, Yi Luo, Michael O'Donnell, Adrie van Bokhoven, Catherine S Bradley, Robert Gallup, Jennifer Pierce, Bayley J Taple, Bruce D Naliboff, J Quentin Clemens, Karl J Kreder, Andrew Schrepf Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

Target occupancy biomarker assay development using a conformation-selective antibody against small-molecule-bound TNF (2023) Elizabeth S Hickford, James O?Connell , Alison Maloney, Peter Florian, Geoffrey I Bioanalysis

Characterization of the central nervous system penetrant and selective purine P2X7 receptor antagonist JNJ-54175446 in patients with major depressive disorder (2023) Kasper Recourt, Peter de Boer, Peter van der Ark, Heike Benes, Joop M A van Gerven, Marc Ceusters, Luc van Nueten, Wayne C Drevets, Anindya Bhatacharya, Michael Browning, Gabriel E Jacobs Translational Psychiatry
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Whole-blood cytokine secretion assay as a high-throughput alternative for assessing the cell-mediated immunity profile after two doses of an adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine candidate (2022) De Rosa SC, Cohen KW, Bonaparte M, Fu B, Garg S, Gerard C, Goepfert PA, Huang Y, Larocque D, McElrath MJ, Morris d, Van der Most R, de Bruyn G, Anke Pagnon Clinical & Translational Immunology
Therapy Indications

Cellular and humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection in multiple sclerosis patients on ocrelizumab and other disease-modifying therapies: a multi-ethnic observational study (2022) Kister I, Patskovsky Y, Curtin R, Pei J, Perdomo K, Rimler Z, Voloshyna I, Samanovic MI, Cornelius AR, Velmurugu Y, Nyovanie S, Kim J, Tardio E, Bacon TE, Zhovtis L, Ryerson LZ, Raut P, Pedotti R, Hawker K, Raposo C, Priest J, Cabatingan M, Winger RC, Mulligan MJ, Krogsgaard M, Silverman GJ medRxiv
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T cell apoptosis characterizes severe Covid-19 disease (2022) Andre S, Picard M, Cezar R, Roux-Dalvai F, Alleaume-Butauz A, Soundaramourty C, Santa Cruz A, Mendes-Frias A, Gotti C, Leclercq M, Nicolas A, Tauzin A, Carvalho A, Capela c, Pedrosa J, Castro AG, Kundura L, Loubet P, Sotto A, Muller L, Lefrant JY, Roger C, Claret PG, Duvnjak S, Tran TA, Racine G, zghidi-Abouzid O, Nioche P, Silvestre R, Droit A, Mammano F, Corbeau P, Estaquier J CDD Press
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CC-99677, a novel, oral, selective covalent MK2 inhibitor, sustainably reduces pro-infammatory cytokine production (2022) Rajula Gaur, Kofi A Mensah, Jason Stricker, Mary Adams, Anastasia Parton, Dorota Cedzik 1, Jamie Connarn 1, Michael Thomas, Gerald Horan, Peter Schafer, Stuart Mair, Maria Palmisano, Francisco Ram?rez-Valle Arthritis Research and Therapy

Exploration of the induced cytokine responses in European Lyme neuroborreliosis: A longitudinal cohort study (2022) Rosa Maja M?hring Gynthersen, Mathilde Orbaek, Helene Mens, Christian Stenor, Lothar Wiese, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Anne-Mette Lebech Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Distinct Immune Reconstitution Profiles Captured by Immune Functional Assays at 6 Months Post Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (2022) William Mouton, Anne Conrad, Vincent Alcazer, Mathilde Boccard, Maxime Bodinier, Guy Oriol, Fabien Subtil, Helene Labussiere-Wallet, Sophie Ducastelle-Lepretre, Fiorenza Barraco, Marie Balsat, Gaelle Fossard, Karen Brengel-Pesce, Florence Adler, Sophie Trouillet-Assant Transplantation and Cellular Therapy

First-in-human study of deucravacitinib: A selective, potent, allosteric small-molecule inhibitor of tyrosine kinase 2 (2022) Ian M Catlett, Urvi Aras, Lars Hansen, Yali Liu, Di Bei, Ihab G Girgis, Bindu Murthy Clinical Translational Science

Defective activation and regulation of type I interferon immunity is associated with increasing COVID-19 severity (2022) Nika?a Smith, C?line Poss?m?, Vincent Bondet, Jamie Sugrue, Liam Townsend, Bruno Charbit, Vincent Rouilly, Violaine Saint-Andr?, Tom Dott, Andre Rodriguez Pozo, Nader Yatim, Olivier Schwartz, Minerva Cervantes-Gonzalez, Jade Ghosn, Paul Bastard, Jean Laurent Casanova, Tali-Anne Szwebel, Benjamin Terrier, Niall Conlon, Cliona O'Farrelly, Cl?ona N? Cheallaigh, Nollaig M Bourke, Darragh Duffy Nature Communciations

Innate immune function during antineoplastic treatment is associated with 12-months survival in non small cell lung cancer (2022) Heidi Ryssel, Kristian Egebjerg, Susanne Dam Nielsen, Jens Lundgren5,6, Mette P?hl, Seppo W. Langer2, Andreas Kjaer, Sisse Rye Ostrowski and Barbara Malene Fischer Frontiers in Immunology
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Hybrid and vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in MS patients on different disease-modifying therapies (2022) Ilya Kister , Ryan Curtin, Jinglan Pei, Katherine Perdomo, Tamar E. Bacon, Iryna Voloshyna, Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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Preclinical and clinical characterization of the ROR?t inhibitor JNJ-61803534 (2021) Xue X, De Leon-Tabaldo A, Luna-Roman R, Castro G, Albers M, Shoetens F, DePrimo S, Devineni D, Wilde T, Goldberg S, Hoffmann T, Fourie AM, Thurmond RL Scientific Reports

Distinct gene regulatory signatures of dominance rank and social bond strength in wild baboons (2021) Anderson JA, Lea AJ, Voyles TN, Akinyi MY, Nyakundi R, Ochola L, Omondi M, Nyundo F, Zhang Y, Campos FA, Alberts SC, Archie EA, Tung J bioRxiv preprint
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Very-low-carbohydrate diet enhances human T-cell immunity through immunometabolic reprogramming (2021) Hirschberger S, Straub G, Effinger D, Marstaller X, Ferstl A, Muller MB, Wu T, Hubner M, Rahmel T, Mascolo H, Exner N, Heb J, Kreth FW, Unger K, Kreth S EMBO Molecular Medicine

Phase 1 study in healthy participants of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of enpatoran (M5049), a dual antagonist of toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (2021) Port A, Shaw JV, Klopp-Schulze L, Bytyqi A, Vetter C, Husey E, Mammasse N, Ona V, Bachmann A, Strugala D, Reh C, Goteti K Pharmacology Researh and Perspective

Sex-specific differences in peripheral blood leukocyte transcriptional response to LPS are enriched for HLA region and X chromosome genes (2021) Stein MM, Conery M, Magnaye KM, Clay SM, Billstrand C, Nicolae R, Naughton K, Ober C, Thompson EE Scientific Reports
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First-in-human study of the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ALPN-101, a dual CD28/ICOS antagonist, in healthy adult subjects (2021) Yang J, Lickliter JD, Hilson JL, Means GD, Sanderson RJ, Carley K, Tercero A, Manjarrez KL, Wiley JR, Peng SL Clinical and Translational Science

Novel approaches to develop biomarkers predicting treatment responses to TNF-blockers (2021) Mezghiche I, Yahia-Cherbal H, Rogge L, Bianchi E Expert Review of Clinical Immunology

Machine learning-based single cell and integrative analysis reveals that baseline mDC predisposition predicts protective Hepatitis B vaccine response (2021) Aevermann B, Shannon CP, Novotny M, Ben-Othman R, Cai B, Zhang Y, Ye JC, Kobor MS, Gladish N, Lee A, Blimke TM, Hancock RE, Llibre A, Duffy D, Koff WC, Sadarangani M, Tebbutt SJ, Kollmann TR, Scheuermann RH medRxiv

Novel signatures associated with systemic lupus erythematosus clinical response to IFN-a/-? inhibition (2021) Seridi L, Cesaroni M, Orillion A, Schreiter J, Chevrier M, Marciniak S, Migone TS, Stohl W, Chatham WW, Furie RA, Benson J, Jordan J Lupus

Primary human dendritic cells and whole-blood based assays to evaluate immuno-modulatory properties of heat-killed commensal bacteria (2021) Norton JE Jr., Kommineni S, Akrivoulis P, Gutierrez DA, Hazuda DJ, Swaminathan G Vaccines

Differential response induced by LPS and MPLA in immunocompetent and septic individuals (2021) Vega CA, Karakike E, Bartolo F, Mouton W, Cerrato E, Brengel-Pesce K, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Mallet F, Trouillet-Assant S Clinical Immunology

Characterization of the pathophysiological determinants of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli infection using a challenge model in healthy adults (2021) van Hoffen E, Mercenier A, Vidal K, Benyacoub J, Schloesser J, Kardinaal A, Lucas-van de Bos E, van Alen I, Rogero I, Duintjer K, Berendts A, Albers R, Kleerebezem M, Bruggencate ST Scientific Reports

Functional immune reconstitution early after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: A comparison of pre- and post-transplantation cytokine responses in stimulated whole-blood (2021) Gjaerde LK, Brooks PT, Andersen NS, Friss LS, Kornblit B, Petersen SL, Schjodt I, Nielsen SD, Ostrowski SR, Sengelov H Scandinavaian Journal of Immunology

Safety and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein vaccine formulations in healthy adults: interim results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2, dose-ranging study (2021) Goepfert PA, Fu B, Chabanon AL, Bonaparte MI, Davis MG, Essink BJ, Frank I, Haney O, Janosczyk H, Keefer MC, koutsoukos M, Kimmel MA, Masotti R, Savarino SJ, Schuerman L, Schwarts H, Sher LD, Smith J, Tavares-Da-Silva F, Gurunathan S, DiazGranados CA, de Bruyn G The Lancet, Infectious Disease

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Association of occupational exposures with ex vivo functional immune response in workers handling carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (2020) Schubauer-Berigan MK, Dahm MM, Toennis CA, Sammons DL, Eye T, Kodali V, Zeidler-Erdely PC, Erdely A Nanotoxicology

Application of the TruCulture? whole blood stimulation system for immune response profiling in cattle (2020) O'Brien MB, McLoughlin RM, Meade KG Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

Characterisation of the pharmacodynamic effects of the P2X7 receptor antagonist JNJ-54175446 using an oral dexamphetamine challenge model in healthy males in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple ascending dose trial. (2020) Recourt K, van der Aart J, Jacobs G, de Kam M, Drevets W, van Nueten L, Kanhal K, Siebenga P, Zuiker R, Ravenstijn P, Timmers M, van Gerven J, de Boer P Journal of Psychopharmacology
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Systematic investigation of polyurethane biomaterial surface roughness on human immune responses in vitro (2020) Segan S, Jakobi M, Khokhani P, Klimosch S, Billing F, Schneider M, Martin D, Metzger U, Biesemeier A, Xiong X, Mukherjee A, Steuer H BioMed Research International
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Innate Immune Stimulation of Whole Blood Reveals IFN-1 Hyper-Responsiveness in Type 1 Diabetes (2020) Rodrigues KB, Dufort MJ, Llibre A, Speake C, Jubayer Rahman M, Bondet V, Quiel J, Linsley PS, Greenbaum CJ, Duffy D, Tarbell KV Diabetologia

Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and recurrent macrophage activation syndrome due to a CASP1 variant causing inflammasome hyperactivation (2020) Jorgensen SE, Christiansen M, Host C, Glerup M, Mahler B, Lausten MM, Gad HH, Hartmann R, Herlin T, Mogensen TH Rheumatology

Comparison of host immune responses to LPS in human using an immune profiling panel, in vivo endotaxemia versus ex vivo stimulation (2020) Tawfik DM, Lankelma JM, Vachot L, Cerrato E, Pachot A, Wiersinga WJ, Textoris J Scientific Reports

Towards standardization of immune functional assays (2020) Mouton W, Albert-Vega C, Boccard M, Bartolo F, Oriol G, Lopez J, Pachot A, Textoris J, Mallet F, Brengel-Pesce K, Trouillet-Assant S Clinical Immunology

Results of the phase I open label clinical trial SAKK 06/14 assessing safety of intravesical instillation of VPM1002BC, a recombinant mycobacterium bacillus calmette guerin (BCG), in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and previous failure of conventional BCG therapy (2020) Rentsch CA, Bosshard P, Mayor G, Rieken M, Puschel H, Wirth G, Cathomas R, Parzmair GP, Grode L, Eisele B, Sharma H, Gupta M, Gairola S, Shaligram U, Goldenberger D, Spertini F, Audran R, Enoui M, Beradi S, Hayoz S, Wicki A Oncoimmunology
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Impact of carbohydrate-reduced nutrition in septic patients on ICU: study protocol for a prospective randomised controlled trial (2020) Rahmel T, Hubner M, Koos B, Wolf A, Willemsen KM, Straub G, Effinger D, Adamzik M, Kreth S BMJ Open

Preoperative TruCulture whole blood cytokine response predicts postoperative inflammation in pancreaticoduodenectomy patients - a pilot cohort study (2020) Aasvang EK, Pitter S, Hansen CP, Storkholm JH, Krohn PS, Burgdorf SK, Von Stemann JH, Lundgren JD, Nielsen SD, Kehlet H, Ostrowski SR Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

Safety and efficacy of neurostimulation with a miniaturised vagus nerve stimulation device in patients with multidrug-refractory rheumatoid arthritis: a two-stage multicentre, randomised pilot study (2020) Genovese MC, Gaylis NB, Sikes D, Kivitz A, Horowitz DL, Peterfy C, Glass EV, Levine YA, Chernoff D The Lancet Rheumatology

Preclinical investigations and a first-in-human phase I trial of M4112, the first dual inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and tryptophan 2,30dioxygenase 2, in patients with advanced solid tumors (2020) Naing A, Eder JP, Piha-Paul SA, Gimmi C, Hussey E, Zhang S, Hildebrand V, Hosagrahara V, Habermehl C, Moisan J, Papadopoulos KP Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer

First-in-human, single- and multiple-ascending dose studies in healthy subjects to assess pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety/tolerability of iberdomide, a novel cereblon E3 ligase modulator (2020) Ye Y, Gaudy A, Schafer P, Thomas M, Weiss D, Chen N, Liu L, Xue Y, Carayannopoulos L, Palmisano M Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development

Deciphering heterogeneity of septic shock patients using immune functional assays: a proof of concept study (2020) Albert Vega C, Oriol G, Bartolo F, Lopez J, Pachot A, Rimmele T, Venet F, Leray V, Monneret G, Delwarde B, Brengel-Pesce K, Textoris J, Mallet F, Trouillet-Assant S Scientific Reports

Immune profiling enables stratification of patients with active TB disease or M. tuberculosis infection (2020) Duffy D, Nemes E, Llibre A, Rouilly V, Musvosvi M, Smith N, Filander E, Africa H, Mabwe S, Jaxa L, Charbit B, Mulenga H, the Milieu Interieur Consortium, Tameris M, Walzl G, Malherbe S, Thomas S, Hatherill M, Bilek N, Scriba TJ, Albert ML Clinical Infectious Diseases
Therapy Indications

Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation reduces pain and fatigue in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot trial (2020) Aranow C, Atish-Fregoso Y, Lesser M, Mackay M, Anderson E, Chavan S, Zanos TP, Datta-Chaundhuri T, Bouton C, Tracey KJ, Diamond B Annals of the rheumatic diseases

Immune response profiling of patients with spondyloarthritis reveals signalling networks mediating TNF-blocker function in vivo (2020) Menegatti S, Guillemot V, Latis E, Yahia-Cherbal H, Mittermuller D, Rouilly V, Mascia E, Rosine N, Koturan S, Millot G, Leloup C, Duffy D, Gleizes A, Hacein-Bey-Abina S, Milieu interieur Consortium, Sellam J, Berenbaum F, Miceli C, Dougados M, Bianchi E, Rogge L Ann Rheum Dis

Characterization of LY2775240, a selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, in nonclinical models and in healthy subjects (2020) Patel DR, Urva S, Ho S, Buckman CJ, Ma Y, Lim J, Sissons SE, Zuniga MS, Philips D, Cox K, Dairaghi D Clinical and Translational Science

Systems biology methods applied to blood and tissue for comprehensive analysis of immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in adults (2020) Ben-Othman R, Cai B, Liu AC, Varankovich N, He D, Blimkie TM, Lee AH, Gill EE, Novotny M, Aevermann B, Drissler s, Shannon CP, McCann S, Marty K, Bjornson G, Edgar RD, Lin DTS, Gladish N, MacIsaac J, Amenyogbe N, Chan Q, Libre A, Collin J, Landais, E, Le K, Reiss SM, Koff WC, Havenar-Daughton C, Heran M, Sangha B, Walt D, Krajden M, Crotty S, Sok D, Briney B, Burton DR, Duffy D, Foster LJ, Mohn WW, Kobor MS, Tebbutt SJ, Brinkman RR, Scheuermann RH, Hancock REW, Kollmann TR, Sadarangani M Frontiers in Immunology

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VaccHemInf Project: protocol for a prospective cohort study of efficacy, safety and characterisation of immune functional response to vaccinations in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients (2019) Conrad A, Boccard M, Valour F, Alcazer V, Tovar Sanchez AT, Chidiac C, Laurent F, Vanhems P, Salles G, Brengel-Pesce K, Meunier B, Trouillet-Assant S, Ader F, Lyyon HEMINF Study Group BMJ Journals

Social history and exposure to pathogen signals modulate social status effects on gene regulation in rhesus macaques (2019) Sanz J, Maurizio PL, Snyder-Mackler N, Simons ND, Voyles T, Kohn J, Michopoulos V, Wilson M, Tung J, Barreiro LB bioRxiv

Early changes in immune, coagulation, and organ function after clinical and experimental polytrauma (2019) Halbgbauer Repositorium der Universit?t Ulm

Exploring and redefining Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (2019) Bruserud Skipnes Kommunikasjon, University of Bergen

Synovial fluid biomarkers associated with osteoarthritis severity reflect macrophage and neutrophil related inflammation. (2019) Haraden CA, Huebner JL, Hsueh MF, Li YJ, Kraus VB Arthritis Research & Therapy

Immune function as predictor of infectious complications and clinical outcome in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation (the ImmuneMo:SOT study): a prospective non-interventional observational trial. (2019) Drabe CH, Sorensen SS, Rasmussen A, Perch M, Gustafsson F, Rezahosseini O, Lundgren JD, Osrowski SR, Nielson SD BMC Infectious Diseases

T cell phenotypes are associated with serum IgE levels in Amish and Hutterite children (2019) Hrusch CL, Stein MM, Gozdz J, Holbreich M, Von Mutius E, Vercelli D, Ober C, Sperling AI Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Type I Interferon Predicts an Alternate Immune System Phenotype in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (2019) Thanarajasingam U, Muppirala AN, Jensen MA, Ghodke-Puranik Y, Dorschner JM, Vsetecka DM, Amin S, Makol A, Ernste F, Osborn T, Moder K, Chowdhary V, Niewold TB ACR Open Rheumatology
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Functional immune monitoring in severely injured patients - a pilot study. (2019) Halbgebauer R, Kllermann S, Schafer F, Weckbach S, Weiss M, Barth E, Bracht H, Kalbitz M, Gebhard F, Huber-Lang MS, Perl M Scandinavian Journal of Immunology

Autoinflammatory disease with corneal and mucosal dyskeratosis caused by a novel NLRP1 variant (2019) Herlin T, Jorgensen SE, Host C, Mitchell PS, Christensen MH, Lausten M, Larsen DA, Schmidt FI, Christiansen M, Mogensen TH Rheumatology

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A decade of research on the 17q12-21 asthma locus: Piecing together the puzzle (2018) Stein MM, Thempson EE, Schoettler N, Helling BA, Magnaye KM, Stanhope C, Igartua C, Morin A, Washinton C, Nicolae D, Bonnelykke K, Ober C J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018
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IL-17 blockade with secukinumab in peripheral spondyloarthritis impacts synovial immunopathology without compromising systemic immune responses (2018) van Mens LJJ, van de Sande MGH, Menegatti S, Chen S, Blijdorp ICP, de Jong HM, Fluri IA, Latuhihin TE, van Kuijk AWR, Rogge L, Yeremenko NG, Baeten DLP Arthritis Rheumatol

Cereblon modulator iberdomide induces degradation of the transcription factor Ikaros and Aiolos: immunomodulation in healthy volunteers and relevance to systemic lupus erythematosus (2018) Schafer PH, Ye Y, Wu L, Kosek J, Ringheim G, Yang Z, Liu L, Thomas M, Palmisano M, Chopra R Ann Rheum Dis

Standardized Immunomonitoring: Separating the Signals from the Noise (2018) Duffy D Trends in Biotechnology
Therapy Indications

Effects of an FcyRIIA polymorphism on leukocyte gene expression and cytokine responses to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies (2018) Stein MM, Hrusch CL, Sperling AI, Ober C Genes and Immunity

Identifying the etiology and pathophysiology underlying stunting and environmental enteropathy: study protocol of the AFRIBIOTA project (2018) Vonaesch P, Randremanana R, Gody JC, Collard JM, Giles-Vernick T, Doria M, Vigan-Womas I, Rubbo PA, Etienne A, Andriatahirintsoa EJ, Kapel N, Brown E, Huus KE, Duffy D, Finlay BB, Hasan M, Hunald FA, Robinson A, Manirakiza A, Wegener-Parfrey L, Vray M, Sansonetti PJ BMC Pediatrics

Parent of origin gene expression in a founder population identifies two new candidate imprinted genes at known imprinted regions (2018) Mozaffari SV, Stein MM, Magnaye KM, Nicolae DL, Ober C PLoS One
Therapy Indications

Clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of JNJ-54175446, a brain permeable P2X7 antagonist, in a randomised single-ascending dose study in healthy participants (2018) Timmers M, Ravenstijn P, Xi L, Triana-Baltzer G, Furey M, Van Hemelryck S, Biewenga J, Ceusters M, Bhattacharya A, van den Boer M, van Nueten L, de Boer P Journal of Psychopharmacology
Therapy Indications

Dominace rank-associated gene expression is widespread, sex-specific, and a precursor to high social status in wild male baboons (2018) Lea AJ, Akinyi MY, Nyakundi R, Mareri P, Kariuki T, Alberts SC, Archie EA, Tung J PNAS
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Effects of Traumeel (Tr14) on recovery and inflammatory immune response after repeated bouts of exercise: a double-blind RCT. (2017) Muders K, Pilat C, Deuster V, Frech T, Kr?ger K, Pons-Kuhnemann J, Mooren FC Eur J Appl Physiol.

Dietary Buglossoides Arvensis Oil Increases Circulating n-3 Ployunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Dose Dependent Manner and Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Whole Blood Interleukin-10-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. (2017) Lefort N, LeBlanc R, Surette M Nutrients
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Impact of Maternal antibodies and infant gut microbiota on the immunogenicity of rotacirus vaccines in African, Indian, and European infants: protocol for a prospective cohort study. (2017) Sindhu KN, Cunliffe N, Peak M, Turner M, Darby A, Grassly N, Gordon M, Dube Q, Babji S, Praharaj I, Verghese V, Iturriza-Gomara M, Kang G BMJ

Immunodepression after CPB: Cytokine dynamics and clinics after pediatric cardiac surgery ? A prospective trial (2017) Justus G, Walker C, Rosenthal LM, Berger F, Miera O, Schmitt KR Cytokine

Identifying baseline immune-related biomarkers to predict clinical outcome of immunotherapy (2017) Gnjatic S, Bronte V, Brunet LR, Butler MO, Disis ML, Galon J, Hakansson LG, Hanks BA, Karanikas V, Khleif SN, Kirkwood JM, Miller LD, Schendel DJ, Tanneau I, Wigginton JM and Butterfield LH J Immunother Cancer

The REAnimation Low Immune Status Markers (REALISM) project: a protocol for broad characterisation and follow-up of injury-induced immunosuppression in intensive care unit (ICU) critically ill patients (2017) Rol ML, Venet F, Rimmele T, Moucadel V, Cortez P, Quemeneur L, Gardiner D, Griffiths A, Pachot A, Textoris J, Monneret G, On behalf of the REALISM study group BMJ Open

Effect of DHA supplementation on oxylipin levels in plasma and immune cell stimulated blood. (2017) Schuchardt JP, Ostermann AI, Stork L, Fritzsch S, Kohrs H, Greupner T, Hahn A, Schebb NH Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids

Standardized whole blood stimulation improves immunomonitoring of induced immune responses in multi-center study (2017) Duffy D, Rouilly V, Braudeau C, Corbi?re V, Djebali R, Ungeheuer MN, Josien R, LaBrie ST, Lantz O, Louis D, Martinez-Caceres E, Mascart F, Ruiz de Morales JG, Ottone C, Redjah L, Guen N, Savenay A, Schmolz M, Toubert A, Albert ML Clin Immunol

Altered Immune Activation and IL-23 Signaling in Response to Candida albicans in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 (2017) Bruserud O, Bratland E, Hellesen A, Delaleu N, Reikvam H, Oftedal BE, and Wolff A Front Immunol.

Randomized clinical study of safety, pharmacokinetics, andpharmacodynamics of RIPK1 inhibitor GSK2982772 in healthyvolunteers (2017) Weisel K, Scott NE, Tompson DJ, Votta BJ, Madhavan S, Povey K, Wolstenholme A, Simeoni M, Rudo T, Richards-Peterson L, Sahota T, Wang JE, Lich J, Finger J, Verticelli A, Reilly M, Gough PJ, Harris PA, Bertin J, Wang M Pharmacol Res Perspect.

Distinctive roles of age, sex, and genetics in shaping transcriptional variation of human immune responses to microbial challenges. (2017) Piasecka B, Duffy D, Urrutia A, Quach H, Patin E, Posseme C, Bergstedt J, Charbit B, Rouilly V, MacPherson CR, Hasan M, Albaud B, Gentien D, Fellay J, Albert ML, Quintana-Murci L, Milieu Int?rieur Consortium Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

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Coordinated Activation of Toll-Like Receptor8 (TLR8) and NLRP3 by the TLR8 Agonist, VTX-2337, Ignites Tumoricidal Natural Killer Cell Activity (2016) Dietsch GN, Lu H, Yang Y, Morishima C, Chow LQ, Disis ML, Hershberg RM PLoS ONE
Therapy Indications

Immune Monitoring Technology Primer: Immunoprofiling of Antigen-Stimulated Blood (2016) Brunet LR, LaBrie S, Hagemann T Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer

Noninvasive Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Decreases Whole Blood Culture-Derived Cytokines and Chemokines: A Randomized, Blinded, Healthy Control Pilot Trial (2016) Lerman I, Hauger R, Sorkin L, Proudfoot J, Davis B, Huang A, Lam K, Simon B, Baker DG Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Inhibits Cytokine Production and Attenuates Disease Severity in Rheumatoid Arthritis (2016) Koopman FA, Chavan SS, Miljko S, Grazio S, Sokolovic S, Schuurman PR, Mehta AD, Levine YA, Faltys M, Zitnik R, Tracey KJ, Tak PP PNAS

Effects of Traumeel (Tr14) on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Response in Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind RCT (2016) Muders K, Pilat C, Deuster V, Frech T, Kruger K, Pons-Kuhnemann J, Mooren F-C Mediators of Inflammation

Innate Immunity and Asthma Risk in Amish and Hutterite Farm Children (2016) Stein MM, Hrusch CL, Gozdz J, Igartua C, Pivniouk V, Murray SE, Ledford JG, Marques Dos Santos M, Anderson RL, Metwali N, Neilson JW, Maier RM, Gilbert JA, Holbreich M, Thorne PS, Martinez FD, Von Mutius E, Vercelli D, Ober C, Sperling AI New England Journal of Medicine

Standardized Whole-Blood Transcriptional Profiling Enables the Deconvolution of Complex Induced Immune Responses (2016) Urrutia A, Duffy D, Rouilly V, Posseme C, Djebali R, Illanes G, Libri V, Albaud B, Gentien D, Piasecka B, Hasan M, Fontes M, Quintana-Murci L, Albert Matthew l, Abel L, Alcover A, Astrom K, Bousso P, Bruhns P, Cumano A, Demangel C, Deriano L, Di santo J, Dromer F, Eberl G, Enninga J, Fellay J, Freitas A, Gelpi O, Gomperts-Boneca I, Hercberg S, Lantz O, Leclerc C, Mouquet H, Pellegrini S, Pol S, Rogge L, Sakuntabhai A, Schwartz O, Schwikowski B, Shorte S, Soumelis V, Tangy F, Tartour E, Toubert A, Ungeheuer M-N, Quintana-Murci L, Albert Matthew Cell Reports
Therapy Indications

Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the improvement of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain across a 6-year follow-up. (2016) Generaal E, Vogelzangs N, Macfarlane GJ, Geenen R, Smit JH, de Geus EJ, Dekker J, Penninx BW. J Pain
Therapy Indications

Social status alters immune regulation and response to infection in macaques (2016) Snyder-Mackler N, Sanz J, Kohn JN, Brinkworth JF, Morrow S, Shaver AO, Grenier JC, Pique-Regi R, Johnson ZP, Wilson ME, Barreiro LB, Tung J Science

Exercise-induced cytokine changes in antigen stimulated whole-blood cultures compared to serum (2016) Pilat C, Kr?ger K, Frech T, Mooren FC J Immunol Methods.

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Immune cell profiling to guide therapeutic decisions in rheumatic diseases. (2015) Ermann J, Rao DA, Teslovich NC, Brenner MB, Raychaudhuri S. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2015 Jun 2. doi: 10.1038/nrrheum.2015.71. [Epub ahead of print]

Specificity of human anti-variable heavy (VH) chain autoantibodies and impact on the design and clinical testing of a VH domain antibody antagonist of TNF-a receptor 1 (2015) Cordy JC, Morley PJ, Wright TJ, Birchler MA, Lewis AP, Emmins R, Chen YZ, Powley WM, Bareille PJ, Wilson R, Tonkyn J, Bayliffe AI, Lazaar AL. Clin Exp Immunol.

Late Stage Cancer Patients Remain Highly Responsive to Immune Activation by the Selective TLR8 Agonist Motolimod (VTX-2337) (2015) Dietsch GN, Randall TD, Gottardo R, Northfelt DW, Ramanathan RK, Cohen PA, Manjarrez KL, Newkirk M, Bryan JK, Hershberg RM Clinical Cancer Research

Identification of circulatory biomarkers from clinical trial samples (2015) Brunet LR, Bodman-Smith K, Bodman-Smith M, Kassam Z, Dalgleish A, LaBrie S and Hagemann T J Immunother Cancer

Cd4+ T-Cell Profiles and Peripheral Blood Ex-Vivo Responses to T-Cell Directed Stimulation Delineate Copd Phenotypes (2015) Roberts MEPH, Brandon W.; Brohawn, Philip; Pilataxi, Fernanda; Guo, Xiang; Kuziora, Michael; Bowler, Russell P.; White, Wendy I. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases
Therapy Indications

The Milieu Int?rieur Study ? an Integrative Approach for Study of Human Immunological Variance (2015) Thomas S, Rouilly V, Patin E, Alanio C, Dubois A, Delval C, Marquier L-G, Fauchoux N, Sayegrih S, Vray M, Duffy D, Quintana-Murci L, Albert ML, Abel L, Alcover A, Bousso P, Bruhns P, Cumano A, Da?ron M, Delval C, Demangel C, Deriano L, Di Santo J, Dromer F, Eberl G, Enninga J, Freitas A, Gelpi O, Gomperts-Boneca I, Hercberg S, Lantz O, Leclerc C, Mouquet H, Pellegrini S, Pol S, Rogge L, Sakuntabhai A, Schwartz O, Schwikowski B, Shorte S, Soumelis V, Tangy F, Tartour E, Toubert A, Ungeheuer M-N, Quintana-Murci L, Albert ML Clinical Immunology

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Immunomodulatory Activities of a Concentrated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Tested in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial in Healthy Volunteers (2014) Schmolz M, M?rz RW, Schaudt M, Schaudt C, Lauster C Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014, pp. 341-350

Functional Analysis via Standardized Whole-Blood Stimulation Systems Defines the Boundaries of a Healthy Immune Response to Complex Stimuli (2014) Duffy D, Rouilly V, Libri V, Hasan M, Beitz B, David M, Urrutia A, Bisiaux A, LaBrie ST, Dubois A, Boneca IG, Delval C, Thomas S, Rogge L, Schmolz M, Quintana-Murci L, Albert ML Immunity Volume 40, Issue 3, 20 March 2014, Pages 436?450

Exploring effects of a natural combination medicine on exercise-induced inflammatory immune response: A double-blind RCT (2014) Pilat C, Frech T, Wagner A, Kr?ger K, Hillebrecht A, Pons-K?hnemann J, Scheibelhut C, B?deker RH, Mooren FC Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Jun 12

Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats. (2014) Erdely A, Antonini JM, Young SH, Kashon ML, Gu JK, Hulderman T, Salmen R, Meighan T, Roberts JR, Zeidler-Erdely PC. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2014 Aug 15;11:34. doi: 10.1186/s12989-014-0034-8.
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Autoantibodies to Variable Heavy (VH) Chain Ig Sequences in Humans Impact the Safety and Clinical Pharmacology of a VH Domain Antibody Antagonist of TNF-a Receptor 1 (2013) Holland MC, Wurthner JU, Morley PJ, Birchler MA, Lambert J, Albayaty M, Serone AP, Wilson R, Chen Y, Forrest RM, Cordy JC, Lipson DA, Bayliffe AI Journal of Clinical Immunology, July 2013
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Identification of a molecular profile associated with immune status in first onset schizophrenia patients (2013) Herberth M, Rahmoune H, Schwarz E, Koethe D, Harris LW, Kranaster L, Witt SH, Spain M, Barnes A, Schmolz M, Leweke MF, Guest PC, Bahn S Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses

Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial on the Immunomodulating Activities of Low- and High-Dose Bromelain after Oral Administration ? New Evidence on the Antiinflammatory Mode of Action of Bromelain (2013) M?ller S, M?rz R, Schmolz M, Drewelow B, Eschmann K, Meiser P Phytotherapy Research

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Intraindividual long term stability and response corridors of cytokines in healthy volunteers detected by a standardized whole-blood culture system for bed-side application (2012) Mueller SC, M?rz R, Schmolz M, Drewelow B BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012 Aug 1;12(1):112
Therapy Indications

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Phagocytosis and digestion of pH-sensitive fluorescent dye (Eos-FP) transfected E. coli in whole blood assays from patients with severe sepsis and septic shock (2011) Schreiner L, Huber-Lang M, Weiss ME, Hohmann H, Schmolz M, Schneider EM J Cell Commun Signal. 2011 Jun;5(2):135-44

Discrimination of agonist and antagonist forms of CXCL10 in biologic samples (2011) Casrouge A, Bisiaux A, Stephen L, Schmolz M, Mapes J, Pfister C, Pol S, Mallet V, Albert ML Clin Exp Immunol. 2012 Jan;167(1):137-48

Effects of Echinaforce? treatment on ex vivo-stimulated blood cells (2011) Ritchie MR, Gertsch J, Klein P, Schoop R Phytomedicine. 2011 Jul 15;18(10):826-31

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Synthetic Ligands Against TLR2-9 in TruCulture - whole blood assays distinguish clinical stages of SIRS (trauma) and sepsis (2010) Bindja J, Weiss ME, Schmolz M, Stein GM, Mapes J, Schneiderhan-Marra N, Joos TO, Schneider EM TSIS Mar 9-13th

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"Host Tissue Damage" Signal ATP Impairs IL-12 and IFNgamma Secretion in LPS Stimulated Whole Human Blood. (2008) Nalos M, Huang S, Sluyter R, Khan A, Santner-Nanan B, Nanan R, McLean AS Intensive Care Med 34: 1891-1897.

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Validation of a new highly standardised, lab-independent whole-blood leukocyte function assay for clinical trials (ILCS). (2004) Schmolz M, Hurst TL, Bailey DM, Powell JR, Forsey RJ, Thompson JM, Williams C, Pawelec G Exp Gerontol 39: 667-671.
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Milieu Intérieur: Personalized Immune Response Monitoring

“We hope to advance the promise of personalized medicine with functional biomarkers.”
Dr. Matthew Albert, Director of the Department of Immunology; Co-Director and Founder of the Center for Human Immunology at Institut Pasteur; Adjunct Faculty at Cochin Hospital

Applications of TruCulture in Chronic infection

“What makes our project unique is our ability to induce standardized immune responses…possible because of the reproducibility of the TruCulture system.”
Dr. Darragh Duffy, Laboratory of Dendritic Cell Biology, Department of Immunology, Institut Pasteur

Statistical Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Data Derived from TruCulture

“[Using TruCulture] we get high quality data with very little variation.”
Pr. Magnus Fontes, Director of the International Group for Data Analysis, Institut Pasteur


Estimated lead time for TruCulture Tube Delivery is 6-8 Weeks from receipt of PO, signed contract where applicable, and Shipping Form (2 weeks for LPS and Null Tubes which are routinely kept in stock)

Part # Stimulus Description Type Final Concentration
(After 1mL of blood is added)
782-001277 Interferon beta (IFN-beta) Type I interferon, modulator of for example T lymphocyte responses Cytokine 1000 IU/mL
782-001278 Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) + tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-alpha) 2 synergistically acting pro-inflammatory cytokines (weak to modest immune cell activation) Cytokine IL-1beta: 25 ng/mL
TNF-alpha: 10 ng/mL
782-001295 TNF-alpha Pro-inflammatory cytokine; weak activator of mediator synthesis when used alone Cytokine 10 ng/mL
782-001086 Null Pure (proprietary) TruCulture media without stimulants Negative Control n/a
782-001291 NegCo TruCulture media without stimulants, specially formulated for premium and custom tubes Negative Control including custom excipients 0.033 % HSA
782-001272 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) + Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-EB) ATP modulates via purinergic receptors (such as P2X7) LPS-induced activation of cells of the innate part of the immune system NLRP3 Inflammasome / TLR4 Ligand ATP: 2.5 mM
LPS-EB: 10 ng/mL
782-001273 Lauroyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (C12-iE-DAP) Dipeptide representing bacterial peptido-glycan, activator of NOD1 (intracellular pattern recognition receptor) NOD Ligand 4 µg/mL
782-001259 Zymosan ß-glucan particles (fractions of yeast cell walls); triggers phagocytosis via TLR2, Dectin, and CD11/18 Phagocyte activator 5 µg/mL
782-001275 HKEB Heat killed preparation of the gram negative bacterium, E. Coli O111:B4. Triggers phagocytosis via TLR2, TLR4, and various others Phagocyte activator 10^7 cells/mL
782-001125 anti-CD3 + anti-CD28 Two antibodies triggering T-cell activation via the signaling unit of the T-cell receptor complex (CD3) + co-activation (intensifying T-cell responses, adding activities of Th2 and Treg) via CD28 T-Cell activation CD3: 0.2 µg/mL
CD28: 0.33 µg/mL
782-001202 anti-CD3 T-cell activation via the signaling unit of the T-cell receptor complex (CD3) T-Cell activation 0.2 µg/mL
782-001416 TStim TCR-MHC cross-linking Mabs plus co-stim T-Cell activation Stim: 1.5 µL/mL
coStim: 0.33 µg/mL
782-001274 Fibroblast-Stimulating
Lipopeptide (FSL-1)
Synthetic analogue of microbial
lipoprotein; agonist of TLR2/TLR6
TLR2 Ligand 2 µg/mL
782-001282 Polyinosinic : polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) Analogue of double-stranded RNA, mimics the presence of viral infection. Activator of TLR3 TLR3 Ligand 20 µg/mL
782-001087 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Bacterial endotoxin (E.coli, O55:B5) that elicits a strong innate immune response TLR4 Ligand 0.1 µg/mL
782-001261 LPS-EB Bacterial endotoxin (E.coli, O111:B4) that elicits a strong innate immune response TLR4 Ligand 10 ng/mL
782-001455 LPS+Tstim Bacterial edotoxin (E.coli, O55:B5) that elicits a strong innate response in addition to a T cell response by crosslinking the T cell receptor and MHC on monocytes/macrophages TLR4 Ligand +
T cell receptor ligand
LPS: 0.1 µg/mL
Stim 1.5 µL/mL
782-001269 Gardiquimod Synthetic agonist of TLR7 (responding to single-stranded RNA, for example) TLR7 Ligand 3 µM
782-001264 Resiquimod (R848) Synthetic agonist of TLR7 and TLR8 (both responding to single-stranded RNA) TLR7/8 Ligand 1 µM

If the stimulant you’d like to use in our TruCulture tubes is not listed, please fill out this form to request it. One of our experts will contact you to discuss the feasibility of your request. Thank you for your interest in TruCulture.

RBM provides quantitative measurement of immune related proteins from TruCulture supernatants. Whether your specific application requires a broad range or a focused set of analytes, RBM’s panels are designed to meet your needs.

TruCulture® OptiMAP is an immunoassay testing panel validated and optimized to quantify the effect of TruCulture stimulations.  It is a cost-effective test comprised of 13 biomarkers that captures the diversity of responses to microbial, viral, and T cell stimulants.

OptiMAP Biomarkers

Click or mouse over biomarkers for more information. Analytes included in this MAP are subject to change.
1. Epithelial-Derived Neutrophil-Activating Protein 782. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
3. Interferon gamma4. Interleukin-1 beta
5. Interleukin-106. Interleukin-12 Subunit p70
7. Interleukin-138. Interleukin-17
9. Interleukin-210. Interleukin-23
11. Interleukin-612. Interleukin-8
13. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
MAP Volume Required
OptiMAP v. 1.0 TruCulture Supernatant 100 μL

OptiMAP Design

A total of 106 immune-related biomarkers were tested on TruCulture samples taken from healthy subjects. A careful selection of the key stimulants listed below were used to monitor a wide range of immune response pathways.  From the 106 candidate biomarkers, we selected a subset of 13 assays that were useful in distinguishing responses to individual stimuli while also revealing population variances.

Microbial stimulants: LPS, IL-1β, TNF-α, BCG, HK C. albicans, HK E. coli, HK S. aureus

Viral stimulants: Poly IC, R848, IFN- α/β

T cell stimulants:  SEB, anti-CD3/CD28

Principle component analysis of 25 normal subjects each tested with 12 TruCulture stimuli and responses monitored with either 106 protein biomarkers or an optimized panel of 13 protein biomarkers. Both analyses show a similar ability to segregate responses by the various stimuli, indicating the utility and efficiency of the OptiMAP panel.


For a more comprehensive understanding of functional immune cell activity, TruCulture supernatant can be tested on any of our Human MAP products. The tubes are also compatible with flow cytometry and gene expression analysis.

Multiplex immunoassay analysis of TruCulture supernatants is conducted in our CLIA-certified testing laboratory.

Every order starts with a quote.

To get your quote, contact RBM or choose an option below:

Co-Developing new tubes

To co-develop Truculture tubes of interest, please contact us.
RBM can evaluate your stimuli of interest for sterility, solubility, dose response, short and long-term stability, and reproducibility.


RBM is proud to provide excellent customer support

Let us know how we can help you using one of the following options:

Already have a quote number? Great!

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