A Swedish group of researchers has published a study taking a look at CSF biomarkers following repetitive head trauma. After collecting samples from Olympic boxers and comparing them to matched controls, several biomarkers were elevated in the CSF including neurofilament light protein (NFL), total tau, S-100B, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Many of these markers represent known proteins of cortical and subcortical brain damage. While it seems that the relative change and sometimes markers themselves may differ between TBI and AD for instance, further research investigating the link between brain damage and late-life dementias may be worthwhile.

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