Rules-Based Medicine

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Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α)

Ultrasensitive Immunoassay


Rules-Based Medicine’s internally developed and manufactured ultrasensitive immunoassay to human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) based on the Simoa® bead technology can accurately quantitate sub-pg/mL levels of TNF-a in human plasma and serum. The Simoa TNF-a assay is a valuable clinical research tool for pharmacodynamic analysis of autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious, and oncology diseases.

TNF-α (also known as cachexin, or cachectin) is a systemic inflammatory response cytokine and is secreted primarily by macrophages and monocytes during acute inflammation. It is also produced by CD4+ lymphocytes, NK cells, neutrophils mast cells, eosinophils, and neurons. TNF is produced as a type II transmembrane protein. The metalloprotease TNFα converting enzyme (TACE, also known as ADAM17) releases the homotrimeric cytokine from the membrane-bound form through proteolytic cleavage. The membrane-bound and soluble forms of the homotrimer bind to TNFR-1, expressed on most tissues. The membrane-bound form can also bind to TNFR-2, expressed primarily on immune cells.

TNF plays a critical role in resistance to bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections and is responsible for a wide range of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. TNF regulates immune cells. As an endogenous pyrogen, TNF induces fever, apoptosis, and can inhibit tumorigenesis. The cytokine has been implicated in multiple disease states, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. TNF dysregulation has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and psoriasis.


Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P01375

Alternate names for this biomarker include:

Cachectin, Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2

Simoa™ Services
Biomarker LLOQ*
(Serum and Plasma)
(Undiluted Samples)
Volume Required
Serum or plasma Other fluids**
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α)  0.078 pg/mL 0.020 pg/mL 100 µL 150 µL

* Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) represents the lowest amount of an analyte that can be quantitatively determined with acceptable precision. LLOQ is determined by performing 2-fold serial dilutions of Standard to be tested in triplicate over three runs. The percent coefficient of variation (CV) is calculated for each of the dilution replicates, and the LLOQ is determined as the concentration at which the CV is 30%.

** Cerebrospinal fluid, urine, tissue culture supernatants,  bronchoalveolar lavage, synovial fluid, tissue extracts, tears, skin washings, etc.

All assay services are performed in our CLIA-certified laboratory.
Intended for Research Use Only.