Rules-Based Medicine

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Granulocyte-Macrophage Colongy-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF)

Ultrasensitive Immunoassay


Rules-Based Medicine’s (RBM) internally developed and manufactured ultrasensitive immunoassay to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) based on the Simoa® bead technology can accurately quantitate sub-pg/mL levels of GM-CSF in human serum and plasma. Ultrasensitive GM-CSF detection may be useful for clinical studies in infectious diseases, oncology, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases.

GM-CSF is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. It stimulates the proliferation of granulocyte and macrophage progenitor cells and influences the differentiation, maturation, and functional activity of myeloid cells. GM-CSF is critical for development and maintenance of alveolar macrophages and thus plays a role in lung homeostasis and host defense. The receptor for GM-CSF is CSF2R, expressed by mainly by myeloid cells and some non-hematopoietic cells, but not lymphoid cells.

Recombinant GM-CSF is used following chemo/radiotherapy to restore myeloid populations in leukemic patients. Clinical evidence also indicate that GM-CSF can be an effective immunostimulatory agent when combined with anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (anti-CTLA-4) antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma as well as in certain tumors of non-hematopoietic origins. It may also have an inflammatory role in several autoimmune disease, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.  GM-CSF therapy in patients have also shown multiple direct and indirect beneficial for cardiovascular diseases, including neovascularization of ischemic myocardium and reduction in myocardial damage after infarction.


Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P04141

Alternate names for this biomarker include:

GM-CSF, Colony-stimulating factor, CSF

Simoa™ Services
Biomarker LLOQ*
(Serum and Plasma)
(Undiluted Samples)
Volume Required
Serum or plasma Other fluids**
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) 0.036 pg/mL 0.009 pg/mL 100 µL 150 µL

* Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) represents the lowest amount of an analyte that can be quantitatively determined with acceptable precision. LLOQ is determined by performing 2-fold serial dilutions of Standard to be tested in triplicate over three runs. The percent coefficient of variation (CV) is calculated for each of the dilution replicates, and the LLOQ is determined as the concentration at which the CV is 30%.

** Cerebrospinal fluid, urine, tissue culture supernatants,  bronchoalveolar lavage, synovial fluid, tissue extracts, tears, skin washings, etc.

All assay services are performed in our CLIA-certified laboratory.
Intended for Research Use Only.